Blumer describes fashion influence as a process of "collective selection" whereby the formation of taste derives from a group of people responding collectively to the zeitgeist or "spirit of the times. Central to any definition of fashion is the relationship between the designed product and how it is distributed and consumed. The study of fashion in the twentieth century has been framed in terms of a fashion systems model with a distinct center from which innovations and modifications radiate outward Davis Designers work from the premise of one look, one image for all, with rules about hem lengths and what to wear with what.
Ling-chi Wang Overview China, or Zhongguo the Middle Kingdomthe third largest country in the world, occupies a significant portion of southeast Asia.
The land mass, 3, square miles 9, sq. Three major rivers flow through China: Eighty-five percent of China's land is nonarable, and the rest is regularly plagued by flood and drought.
Upon this land, China now feeds its 1. These minorities have their own history, religion, language, and culture. The official language of China is putonghua or Mandarin guanhuaspoken by over 70 percent of the Han Chinese.
The remaining Chinese, living mostly in southern China, speak the other seven major Chinese dialects: In spite of their mutual unintelligibility, all eight branches of Chinese share the same writing system, the only fully developed ancient system of writing still used.
The earliest examples of this system of Chinese writing appear on thousands of animal bones and tortoise shells from the middle of the second millennium B. However, according to recent archeological evidence, some 32 inscribed symbols on painted pottery from an early Yangshao culture site near Xi'an in Shaanxi, suggest the existence of Chinese writing as early as 6, years ago.
For example, the neolithic sites of the Yangshao culture along the midsection of the Yellow River confirm the traditional view that the river basin was the cradle of the Chinese civilization.
Legends have it that Huangdi "the Yellow Emperor" defeated his rival tribes, established the first Chinese kingdom, made himself tienzi, or "The Son of Heaven," and invented many things for the benefit of his people, including clothing, boats, carts, medicine, the compass, and writing.
Following Huangdi, historians believe that the Xia Dynasty B.
Xia, weakened by corruption in its final decades, was eventually conquered by a Shang king to the east who established the Shang Dynasty B. The Shang achievements can be readily seen from the remnants of its spectacular palaces, well-crafted giant bronze cauldrons, refined jade carvings, and massive written records.
During the Zhou Dynasty — B. In the highly organized feudal society, the Zhou royal family ruled over hundreds of feudal states. Beginning in B. During these years, the former feudal states engaged in perpetual wars and brutal conquests. During the same time, China witnessed unprecedented progress in agriculture, science, and technology and reached the golden age of Chinese philosophy and literature.
Qin Shi Huangdi of the Qin state finally crushed all the rival states and emerged as the sole ruler of the Chinese empire in B. Qin extended the borders of China; imposed harsh laws; completed the Great Wall; built a transportation network; and standardized weights, measures, currency, and, most importantly, the Chinese writing system.
The brutality of his rule soon led to widespread rebellion, and the Qin rule was eventually replaced by the Han Dynasty B.
The Han emperor firmly established the Chinese state under Confucianism and created an educational and civil service system that remained in use until During this period, China came into contact with the Roman Empire and with India.
During the Sui-Tang era, China traded extensively by land and by sea with the known world, and Islam, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and Christianity were brought into China.
But Tang began to decline toward the end of the eighth century, causing rebellions of warlords from within and invasions from without. After Tang, China was again divided. In Genghis Khan, a Mongolian leader, began the invasion into China from the north, but the conquest was not completed until under Kublai Khan, his grandson, who established the Yuan Dynasty in China.
The decline of the Ming Dynasty led to the conquest of China for the second time by a foreign power, the Manchu, from the northeast. The Manchu established the Qing Dynasty and again expanded China's borders.
Like the Mongols, however, the Manchu conquerors were also conquered and absorbed by the Chinese. Failed reform within the Quing administration, internal pressure through various organized rebellions, external pressure from the major Western powers, and the military defeat by Japan in all led China to become increasingly isolated and weak.
Under the yoke of imperialism and mounting political corruption and internal unrest, especially the Taiping Uprising, the Qing Dynasty collapsed in a revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen in The new Republic of China, under the leadership of Sun, his dictatorial successor Chiang Kaishek, and the Nationalist party Guomindang or Kuomintangproved both weak and corrupt.
From the invasion by Japan, which began into a strong insurgent movement led by Communist Mao Tse-tung, the Chiang regime was severely undermined and eventually ousted from China inretreating to Taiwan under U.
Mao established the People's Republic of China, free from foreign domination for the first time since the Opium War. His alliance with the Soviet Union in the s, however, led to its isolation throughout the Cold War. Inunder the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, China also undertook a series of bold economic reforms.
In the United States broke ties with Taiwan and normalized its relations with China.Edgar Cayce. The Sleeping Prophet. Edgar Cayce (March 18, - January 3, ) was an American who claimed to be a psychic with the ability to channel answers to questions on various topics while in a self-induced trance.
Life course theory, more commonly termed the life course perspective, refers to a multidisciplinary paradigm for the study of people's lives, structural contexts, and social change. This approach encompasses ideas and observations from an array of disciplines, .
The Changing Contours of the Life Stages. In their search for useful ways to analyze changing patterns of individual development, social historians have embraced the concept of the life course.
During the twentieth century, life course decisions have increasingly reflected individual choice or institutionalized age norms rather than. Life in the Twentieth Century is Characterized by Changing Patterns of Choice The above statement is, indubitably, true.
Life is based upon an individual's choices; upon their concept of the world. Women in the Twentieth Century and Beyond In looking back at the eras we have studied we see that common patterns of thought regarding gender have run though the course of history, so we shouldn’t be surprised that we still are influenced by and experience the effects of these beliefs.
Here's a look into some features of the everyday life of New Zealanders in the 20th century. These images come from Archives New Zealand, home to government records. Its photographic collection covers the years from the s to the early s.